Charlotte Wood's book just came out; it is an incredibly engaging and also quite riveting thriller. Liane Moriarty just raved about it in the Times, and it got a long feature in the Economist.
Christos Tsiolkas's The Slap got huge publicity worldwide and was made into a very good Australian TV miniseries and a far less good American one. It is a highly contemporary, often divisive, but quite attention-holding book.
Peter Carey and Tim Winton really need to introduction to American readers; of course they are writers of widespread fame, among the finest in the world, and both Nobel contenders. Both Carey and Shirley Hazzard have lived and worked in New York City for many years and have been vital players on the American literary scene, demonstrating the continuing global stakes of Australian literature. Thomas Keneally won the Booker Prize in 1982 for Schindler's List and has made war and its legacies his particular subject.
Gail Jones and Melissa Lucashenko are up-and-coming writers who address Australia's neglected histories and the possibilities for changing them in this new century.